Types of Schemes
Different types of schemes implemented by PHED for providing drinking water supply are as below:-
- Piped Water Supply Schemes
- Spot Source Schemes
Piped Water Supply schemes
Piped Water Supply schemes are further sub divided into following three categories:-
A. Gravity Feed Schemes:-
Spring/ Stream /River source is tapped by constructing a weir & water is conveyed by gravity to a conventional type treatment plant consisting of sedimentation tank, slow sand filter tank followed by a clear water reservoir & eventually distributed to the villagers through a network of distribution pipe lines by public stand posts/taps after disinfection by adding bleaching powder. In few schemes, rapid gravity type treatment plant or simplified treatment plants were provided.
Whenever water source is a spring, treatment plants are not provided, since the quality of raw water is fit for human consumption.
Few old schemes do not have treatment facility as the water source was covered with forest during implementation. However, during reconstruction of such schemes, adequate treatment facility will be provided.
B. River Pumping Schemes: - The source is river/ stream & water is pumped to the treatment plant or intermediate sump. The treatment Plant & distribution network are constructed/laid as in the gravity feed schemes.
C. DTW(Deep Tube well) Pumping Schemes:- These are same as river pumping schemes except that source is under ground water, which is tapped by drilling well. Generally quality of ground water is chemically safe for all parameters except iron in some cases. Iron Removal Plants (IRPs) are provided to tackle presence of excess iron in drinking water , wherever required. In some cases, the old source has been discarded & water supply is provided by tapping alternative sources.
Spot Sources Schemes
Spot Source Schemes are further sub divided into following categories:-
Hand Pumps (HPs):- Shallow/Deep bores are drilled & hand pumps are installed for providing drinking water.
Wells: - Different types of wells constructed by the Dept. for supplying water in rural areas are:-
Ring wells (RCC Rings are put one after another till the desired level is reached)
Drinking wells/Dug Wells (instead of rings, stone/brick masonry is used for lining the wells)
STC (spring Tapped Chamber):- In these schemes, chambers are constructed at the mouth of the Spring Source, to protect the spring source from pollution.