Swachh Bharat Mission(SBM)/Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC)
The rural sanitation programme in India was introduced in the year 1954 as a part of the First Five Year Plan of the Government of India. The 1981 Census revealed rural sanitation coverage was only 1%. The International Decade for Drinking water and Sanitation during 1981-90, began giving emphasis on rural sanitation. Government of India introduced the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) in 1986 primarily with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural people and also to provide privacy and dignity to women. From 1999, a “demand driven” approach under the “Total Sanitation Campaign” (TSC) emphasized more on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Human Resource Development (HRD), Capacity Development activities to increase awareness among the rural people and generation of demand for sanitary facilities. This enhanced people’s capacity to choose appropriate options through alternate delivery mechanisms as per their economic condition. Financial incentives were provided to Below Poverty Line (BPL) households for construction and usage of individual household latrines (IHHL) in recognition of their achievements.
To generate awareness on sanitation, the Nirmal Gram Puraskars (NGP) were awarded to recognise the achievements and efforts made at the GP level in ensuring full sanitation coverage and achieving other indicators of open defecation free GPs. While the award gained popularity in bringing about a desire in the community for attaining Nirmal Status, there have been issues of sustainability in some awardee GPs.
The “Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan” (NBA) the successor programme of the TSC, was launched from 1.4.2012. The objective was to accelerate the sanitation coverage in the rural areas so as to comprehensively cover the rural community through renewed strategies and saturation approach. Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) envisaged covering the entire community for saturated outcomes with a view to create Nirmal Gram Panchayats. Under NBA, the Incentives for IHHLs were enhanced and further focussed support was obtained from MNREGA. However there were implementation difficulties in convergence of NBA with MNREGA as funding from different sources created delays.
To accelerate the efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation, the Prime Minister of India launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on 2nd October, 2014. The Mission Coordinator shall be Secretary, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MDWS) with two Sub-Missions, the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban), which aims to achieve Swachh Bharat by 2019, as a fitting tribute to the 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, which in rural areas shall mean improving the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitised. The Mission shall strive for this by removing the bottlenecks that were hindering the progress, including partial funding for Individual Household Latrines from MNREGS, and focusing on critical issues affecting outcomes.
The Guidelines of SBM (G) and the provisions hereunder are applicable with effect from 02.10.2014
To achieve “Swachh Bharat” by 2019
Objectives of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open defecation. b) Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2nd October 2019. c) Motivate Communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions to adopt sustainable sanitation practices and facilities through awareness creation and health education. d) Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation. e) Develop wherever required, Community managed sanitation systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.
The focus of the Strategy is to move towards a ‘Swachh Bharat’ by providing flexibility to State Governments, as Sanitation is a state subject, to decide on their implementation policy and mechanisms, taking into account State specific requirements. This is focused to enable States to develop an Implementation Framework that can utilise the provisions under the Mission effectively and maximize the impact of the interventions. The Government of India’s role would be to complement the efforts of the State Governments through the focused programme being given the status of a Mission, recognizing its dire need for the country. It is suggested that Implementation Framework of each State be prepared with a road map of activities covering the 3 important phases necessary for the Programme:
(i) Planning Phase (ii) Implementation Phase (iii) Sustainability Phase
Each of these phases will have activities that need to be specifically catered for with concrete Plans of Action, which shall need specific preparation and planning.
The suggested approach would be to adopt the Community led and Community Saturation approaches focusing heavily on collective behavioral change. Emphasis is to be placed on awareness generation, triggering behaviour change and demand generation for sanitary facilities in Houses, Schools, Anganwadis, places of Community congregation, and for Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities. Focus will be on Inter Personal Communication (IPC), especially of triggering of demand and use of toilets through social and behavioural change communication and house to house interventions. Since Open Defecation Free villages cannot be achieved without all the households and individuals conforming to the desired behaviour of toilet use, every day and every time, community action and generation of peer pressure on the outliers are the key. Therefore behavior change communication should focus on triggering entire communities. Community based monitoring and vigilance committees are essential to create peer pressure. Delivery mechanisms would be adopted to meet the community needs, which is to be decided by the States. In the context of striving for saturation and its consequent implications, it is suggested that the planning for implementation should be the District level. There should be suitable targeting of GPs and an appropriate district wide IEC/ IPC/social mobilization campaign should be carried out.
The provision of Incentives for individual household latrine units to the rural households is available to States (from the IHHL component) which may wish to provide the same so that tangible assistance is available for creation of infrastructure in addition to extensive motivational and behavioral change interventions (from the IEC component). This may also be used to maximize coverage so as to attain community outcomes.
States will have flexibility regarding the utilization of the IHHL Incentive. Reputed Civil Society Organisations (CSOs), Self Help Groups (SHGs), NGOs, international, national and local level organizations with a proven track record of working in specific fields in the social sector, may be involved in IEC/BCC/ triggering, capacity building, monitoring and if found appropriate, in implementation. Local level mobilisation on sanitation has to be focused, as this cannot be substituted by other Communication methods.
Availability of water in the Villages is an important factor for sustaining sanitation facilities created. Conjoint programmes may be proritised at the District and GP levels under the SBM(Gramin) and the National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP), to maximize the availability of water for sanitary purposes.
Construction of Individual Household Latrines
A duly completed household sanitary latrine shall comprise of a Toilet Unit including a substructure which is sanitary (that safely confines human feaces and eliminates the need of human handling before it is fully decomposed), a super structure, with water facility and hand wash unit for cleaning and handwashing. The Mission aims to ensure that all rural families have access to toilets. There are various models of toilets available based on safe sanitation technologies like the Twin Pit, Septic tank, Bio toilets amongst others The Ministry encourages the development of other safe technologies and States shall disseminate information about available technologies and their costs to the beneficiary to enable him/her to make an informed choice. States can also consider the construction of ‘Row’ toilets and Complexes for a group of families, mainly where it is not possible to construct IHHLs. It should be ensured that the toilets constructed for Individual households meet the minimum design specifications to ensure their sustainability. Care shall be taken to ensure that these toilets are not over-designed and overconstructed i.e. building extra large pits which are not required, to keep them affordable and also to prevent problems like contamination of drinking water. States have to ensure through effective communication that such tendencies are restricted. Appropriate information has to be provided to the beneficiary regarding the maintenance of the toilets provided. The Toilets must have a superstructure acceptable to the beneficiaries, as the poor quality of toilets constructed has been one of the main complaints against earlier sanitation programmes. Various options for the Superstructure should be explored and information about the options available provided to the beneficiary for him/her to choose from.
The Incentive amount provided under SBM(G) to Below Poverty Line (BPL) /identified APLs households shall be up to Rs.12,000 for construction of one unit of IHHL and provide for water availability, including for storing for hand-washing and cleaning of the toilet. Central Share of this Incentive for IHHLs shall be Rs.9,000/- (75%) from Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The State share will be Rs.3,000/-(25%). For North Eastern State, and Special category States, the Central share will be Rs. 10,800/- and the State share Rs.1,200/- (90% : 10%). The beneficiary is to be encouraged to additionally contribute in the construction of his IHHL to promote ownership. State Governments have the flexibility to provide higher incentive for a household toilet, for higher unit costs from sources other than SBM(G). However, this additional funding cannot be from the Central share of any other Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
States shall have the flexibility to decide on the implementation mechanism to be followed in the state. APL families not covered by the above incentives will be motivated and triggered to take up construction of the household latrines on their own. The IEC activities focusing on behaviour change will provide comprehensive coverage to all the families in the GP without exception. APL families facing fund problems may be assisted through the Revolving fund as outlined in the guidelines, or through low cost financing from NABARD, Banks and Financial Institutions.
Community Sanitary Complex (CSC)
Community Sanitary Complexes comprising an appropriate number of toilet seats, bathing cubicles, washing platforms, wash basins etc, can be set up in a place in the village acceptable and accessible to all. Ordinarily such complexes shall be constructed only when there is lack of space in the village for construction of household toilets and the Community/ GP owns up the responsibility of their operation and maintenance and gives a specific demand for the same. Such Complexes can be made at public places, markets, bus stands etc., where large congregation of people takes place.
The maintenance of such Complexes is very essential for which Gram Panchayat should own the ultimate responsibility and the Operation and Maintenance should be assured. User families, in case of complexes specifically meant for households, may be asked to contribute a reasonable monthly user charge for cleaning & maintenance. For complexes in places of community congregation, pay and use model may be encouraged. The proposal for putting up CSC will be approved by the State level Scheme Sanctioning Committee (SLSSC). Suitable Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring guidelines may be issued by the State to ensure proper maintenance of the complex.
Solid and Liquid Waste Management
The objective of SBM(G) is to bring about improvement in the cleanliness, hygiene and the general quality of life in rural areas. Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) is one of the key components of the programme. To create clean villages, it is essential that the IEC interventions focus on Solid and Liquid Waste Management so as to create a felt need for these activities amongst the population. This must lead to the setting up of systems for the scientific disposal of waste in such a way that has a tangible impact on the population. The Community /Gram panchayat has to be motivated to come forward and demand for such a system, which they have to subsequently operate and maintain.
5.10.2 Once the demand is created, to ensure that the resources are used efficiently, SLWM is to be taken up in project mode for each Gram Panchayat (GP) with financial assistance capped for a GP on number of household basis to enable all GPs to implement sustainable SLWM projects. The total assistance under SBM(G) for SLWM projects shall be worked out on the basis of total number of households in each GP, subject to a maximum of Rs.7 lakh for a GP having up to 150 households, Rs.12 lakh up to 300 households, Rs.15 lakh up to 500 households and Rs.20 lakh for GPs having more than 500 households. Funding for SLWM project under SBM(G) is provided by the Central and State Government in the ratio of 75:25. Any additional cost requirement is to be met with funds from the State/ GP, and from other sources like Finance Commission funding, CSR, Swachh Bharat Kosh and through the PPP model.
Under Solid and Liquid Waste Management, the following activities inter-alia may be undertaken:
- For Solid Waste Management: States are to decide the technologies suitable to their areas. Technologies identified by the Committee on Technologies may also be considered for implementation. Collection, segregation and safe disposal of household garbage, decentralised systems like household composting and biogas plants shall be permitted. Activities related to maximum reuse of organic solid wastes as manure should be adopted. Such technologies may include vermi-composting or any other composting method, individual and community biogas plants. Funds allocated for Solid and Liquid Waste Management may be used to implement safe disposal solutions for menstrual waste (used sanitary cloths and pads) and setting up incinerators in Schools, Women’s Community Sanitary Complexes, Primary Health Centre, or in any other suitable place in village and collection mechanisms etc can be taken up. Technologies may include appropriate options that are socially acceptable and environmentally safe.
- For Liquid Waste Management: States are to identify suitable technologies. Methods adopted for management of liquid wastes may focus on maximum reuse of such waste for agriculture purposes with least operation and maintenance costs. For collection of waste water, low cost drainage/ small bore system, soakage pit may be adopted. For treatment of waste water the following technologies may inter-alia be considered: a. Waste Stabilization Pond (WSP) technology b. Duckweed based waste water treatment. c. Phyto rid Technology (developed by NEERI) d. Anaerobic decentralized waste water treatment. For details of the technologies suitable for rural areas, a handbook “Technical options for Solid and Liquid Waste Management in Rural areas” and other publications under preparation to be issued by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation may be referred. These publications can be accessed on the website under the head “Publication” or on URL http:// www.mdws.gov.in/
All GPs are to be targeted for coverage with a SLWM project. SLWM Projects for each GP should be part of the annual District Plan. The Annual District Plan should be approved by State level Scheme Sanctioning Committee (SLSSC). Each individual SLWM project may be approved at the DWSC level as per the technical and financial rules of the individual States. The objective is to initiate SLWM projects in all GPs without delay.
Sustainable Operation and Maintenance systems have to be put in place before the SLWM projects are taken up.The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation shall publish information and manuals including technical information on SLWM on the MDWS website from time to time. [http://www.mdws.gov.in/ publications]
1st National Programme to provide access to Rural Sanitation was launched from 1986 but the Programme was not successful as Sanitation is about Habits and not on construction of Toilets. The mind set of the people is therefore very important. In the State, with the State PHED as the Nodal Department, Swacch Bharat Mission(SBM) is being implemented by District Water and Sanitation Mission (DWSM) headed by respective Deputy Commissioners of the District. As per the Baseline Survey 2012, carried out by Respective District Water Sanitation Missions, the total Nos. of Households in the Rural Areas of the State is 4,11,610 nos.
The State has prepared a Road Map for achieving Swachh Bharat well ahead of the target date . So far one district namely Ri Bhoi has been declared as Swatch Bharat District. Efforts are made to convert other districts as Swatch Districts within the stipulated time of October 2019.