CENTRALLY SPONSORED/CENTRAL SECTOR SCHEMES
of L.P. Schools
provided with water
supply under sector
reforms project during
Over the decades, Government has allocated massive financial and technical inputs to rural water supply (RWS) and sanitation programmes, and has achieved considerable success in meeting the needs of the rural population. Yet, the results have not been commensurate with the huge investments made in this sector. As a result, water scarcity still persists. Despite good strides, improvement in RWS lagged behind. The Government has realised that increased investments are not enough as projects are failing to sustain themselves. Systems fall idle and into disrepair due to poor maintenance. This is due to the perception of the rural people that water is a social right to be provided by the Government, free of cost, rather than a socio-economic resource that should be managed at the lowest appropriate level, with users involved in the planning and implementation of projects. With this aim in view, the Department of Drinking Water Supply strives to mobilise community participation in RWS and sanitation
Presently, people are not aware of the technology aspects or given the choice between different technologies; they do not even know the details of expenditure on the project. Non-involvement of people in the design and execution of projects may lead to sub-standard quality of materials been used, poor workmanship and insufficient maintenance.
Field research has shown that stakeholders get involved in operation and maintenance of the systems only when they pay for it, when they are certain that they would control the funds, which are collected for operation and maintenance, and that water supply would be dependable.
In order to face these challenges, Government of India has brought about policy changes by introducing reforms in the rural drinking water sector. A paradigm shift has been made in the RWS sector where the emphasis is on demand- responsive approaches, community participation and decentralisation of powers for implementing and operating drinking water supply schemes. Till July 2002, 67 pilot districts have been selected for implementing Sector Reform projects. After gaining experience in the first phase, the Sector Reform approach would be improved and expanded to the remaining districts of the country.
In this new approach, the Government's role is primarily as a facilitator. The efforts will be to create awareness amongst the people about the need for their effective participation in the programme. The community should be willing to manage and operate the drinking water supply schemes, for which they should have a feeling of ownership of the assets created. A part of the capital cost and full operation and, maintenance cost should be borne by the community.
The main objective of Sector Reform project is not just physical implementation of a water supply scheme, but to institutionalise a new concept, which envisages to enhance awareness among the rural people by demystifying various possible RWS technology options, merits and demerits of each option, their cost differences, the importance of people's participation and to equip the rural population to plan, sanction, partially fund, implement, operate, maintain, manage and replace the schemes of their choice, themselves. This being rather difficult and a challenging initiative, it is expected that there would be many problems in the initial stages but it is likely to gain momentum only after awareness generation and capacity building activities progress.
The sector Reform Project for Pilot District of Ri Bhoi was implemented, where community was involved in Planning & implementation of Water Supply Schemes, through District Water Supply & Sanitation Mission (DWSM) with the Deputy Commissioner, Ri Bhoi District as the Chairman & the concerned EE (PHE) as the Member Secretary. The project was completed at a cost of Rs. 307.07 Lakhs. Of this, Rs.272.10 Lakhs was released by Govt. of India, Rs.29.45 Lakhs was obtained from community contribution (which is 10% of the capital cost) & balance from accrued interest. In 36 habitations & 50 nos. of schools water supply was provided with the involvement of community/beneficiary /school Authority. Recharging activities were taken up in 25 habitations. The completed schemes are being maintained by Village Water Supply & Sanitation Committee (VWSC). From 2006-07 onwards Sector reform Project will be merged with Swajaldhara Program, as per Govt. of India directives
Reforms in the rural drinking water sector were adopted in 1999 through
Sector Reform Project (SRP)
on pilot basis and have been scaled up throughout the country in the form of Swajaldhara launched on 25th December 2002. The programme is a paradigm shift from supply driven to demand driven, centralized to decentralized implementation and Government's role from service provider to facilitator. The fundamental reform principles in Swajaldhara are adhered to by the State Governments and the Implementing Agencies in terms of adoption of a demand-responsive approach with community participation. It is based on empowerment of villagers to ensure their full participation in the project through a decision making role in the choice of the drinking water scheme, planning, design, implementation, control of finances, management arrangements including full ownership of drinking water assets. The community has to share partial capital cost either in cash or kind or both, 100% responsibility of operation and maintenance (O&M). An integrated service delivery mechanism is also promoted which includes taking up conservation measures through rainwater harvesting and ground water recharge systems for sustained drinking water supply.
Govt. of India launched the program named ”SWAJALDHARA” on 25.12.2002 throughout the country to enhance community participation, in which blocks/gram panchayats /beneficiary groups are to be involved to plan, implement, operate, maintain and manage all drinking water supply schemes.
As per the revised guidelines of June 2003, 90% of the project cost under “Swajaldhara” will be borne by Govt. of India & balance 10% by the beneficiary. For School Water Supply, Sharing pattern will be 90:10 by Central Govt. and Parent Teachers Association (PTA). 100% maintenance cost will be borne by the community after implementation.
Swajaldhara-I schemes to be implemented in all the six districts of the State except in Ri Bhoi district, where Swajaldhara-II will be taken up during current year. As per the revised guidelines, the schemes under Swajaldhara-I will be submitted by VWSC (Village Water & Sanitation Committee) & approved by District Water & Sanitation Mission (DWSM). Swajaldhara-II project will be submitted by DWSM to SWSM(State Water & Sanitation Mission) for scrutiny & approval. SWSM has been constituted in the State with the Chief Secretary as the Chairman & the Commissioner & secretary (PHE) as member Secretary with members drawn from various Govt. Depts. & NGOs.
Similarly DWSM has been constituted for all the districts of the State with the Deputy Commissioner as the Chairman & the EE/SE , PHE as the member secretary with members drawn from various Govt. Depts. including NGOs. The constitution of different committees has been notified as per the guidelines of Govt. of India.
Necessary technical assistance will be provided by the Executive Engineers of PHED posted in the districts for preparation & implementation of the scheme.
The Deputy Commissioners have already taken initiative for implementation of the Program in their respective districts.
For 2004-05, the allocation was fixed at Rs.186.12 Lakhs. However Govt. of India released Rs. 167.51 Lakhs. Up to March 2005, Rs. 67.73 Lakhs was released to VWSC for 15 numbers of Projects(out of 17 projects approved), which are at various stages of implementation. Apart from this, another Rs. 1.71 Lakhs has been utilized for start up activities. Balance funds as available are being released to these projects . Details of these projects are enclosed. For Sector Reform district of Ri Bhoi, the project Proposal is being sanctioned by Govt. of India shortly .
This being a new concept, the progress was rather slow, which is expected to pick up gradually. No project has been completed under Swajaldhara so far .
At present the Engineers of PHED are guiding the members of DWSM/VWSC in all technical matters. It is proposed to set up Community & Capacity Development Unit(CCDU) to impart training on all matters relating to water supply & sanitation Sector to the community & the members of DWSM. Once CCDU is in place, this would be catering to the needs of capacity building.
Under Rural Sanitation
were constructed by
PHED, but these became
passage of time due to
to several revisions of the Rural Sanitation guidelines from 1999 to 2002,
implementation of rural sanitation program has become almost standstill.
Government of India
has phased out
and replaced it by Total Sanitation
Campaign (TSC), where program for construction of individual latrines School
latrines /Anganwadi latrines are to be taken up through out the districts
by the beneficiaries
programme will be implemented through
District Water Supply Sanitation
Mission(DWSM) headed by the Deputy
Commissioner as its Chairman
and the concerned EE
PHE, as Member
Secretary. DWSM have
been constituted for the seven districts of the state for implementation of
will be launched under
the programme to
motivate the people
for construction of latrines
aware of the
sanitation for a
disease free life.
TSC project for East Khasi Hills
West Garo Hills district has been sanctioned by the Ministry of Rural
development during 2003-04 an amount of Rs.106.20 Lakhs for East Khasi Hills
District Rs.115.17 Lakhs for West Garo Hills has been released as Ist
installment. The fund has been placed to the respective Deputy Commissioners.
In West Garo Hills, Rs.45.15 Lakhs has been utilized by DWSM
project for Ri Bhoi
district has been
sanctioned by Government
of India recently
and the campaign
will be launched
other districts, the
project are being
sent to the Government
of India for
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